Unit 4-Question 1

Cyber Security Measures

By years 9-10 they describe and apply practises to limit access control, authentication and permissions (ACTDIP034).


Despite cutting edge cyber security technologies passphrases and passwords are the most common security measures to protect our devices and accounts.  A password is a secret word or combination of letters or numbers (a string of characters) used for authenticating a user to give them the right to access information on a computer system.


A passphrase is similar to a password in usage, but it is longer and more secure. There are different guidelines to determine the length of a passphrase. Most passphrases have a minimum requirement of 14 characters. A passphrase can be a phrase that the user can easily remember but is difficult to be guessed by others. Passphrases can have upper and lower case characters, blanks and special characters.

Hashing Passwords

The passwords we enter into web sites or software systems can be stored in databases or password files as plain text, however, history has proven this to be extremely problematic for protecting users.

To protect our passwords, cyber security professionals can add another layer of security to passwords by converting them to a random string of letters, numbers, characters using complex computer algorithms. This process is called hashing.

Multi-Factor (MFA) or Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

The Australian Cyber Security Center  recommends the use of multi-factor authentication. This means there are two or more checks in place to prove your identity before accessing a website. With multi-factor authentication, you need to provide two pieces of information – your password and something else such as a code sent to your mobile device or your fingerprint – before you can access your account.


When you attempt to log in to a website, you may come across a tool that asks you to write out the letters you see on the screen or to ‘select all the images that have a certain content ’. This tool has a purpose to protect your account and information.

Biometric Security

As humans we all have unique patterns in our fingerprints, voice, face composition and eyes. These are unique to each of us and technologists have discovered that they can be used as our very own keys to unlock our digital devices or to access information. You may have seen facial recognition or fingerprints being used on mobile phones or the eye being used to unlock a secure safe in a bank in a movie.  We can train a virtual assistant on our mobile phone using Artificial Intelligence to recognise our voice to unlock our phone and perform actions for us.

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