units 2 – question 2


Subject: 7th – 9th grade students

Duration: 90 minutes

Main ideas:

  • Definition of data and computer network
  • Practical examples
  • Practical tasks
  • Explain the conveyed messages.


Look at these pictures and answer the question: What can you see in the pictures?

Possible answers:

  • Visual
  • Colors
  • Information about date, time, statistics, subjects, temperature, moisture,…
  • The objects on the timetable
  • Illustration of the clouds, the sun and rain,…

So, what can we possibly know based on that information?

  • The timetable: Show the subjects you have to learn in a week on each day and at the exact time. Eg: Monday, 9 – 10:30 A.M : English
  • Weather forecast: The data show visual information so we can decide what to wear in a week. Eg: It’s going to rain on Thursday, we better bring an umbrella or a raincoat  

The data are shown through pictures, colors, objects,… and because of that, the students can access the information such as “which subject are we going to learn on which day” and can understand the exact date and time for each subjects

Based on the visual information on the weather forecast, we can make a decision on what we are going to wear in a week as humans can also gather and put together data and show them out like information.

Question: How can we describe “Mouse”?

Possible answers:

  • Mickey Mouse
  • Computer Mouse
  • Mouse – shaped cake
  • Mouse’s wedding ( a traditional Vietnamese Dong Ho painting)

Or the students can introduce about their families

The possible data the students can gather are: Names, ages, addresses, hobbies and the proffessions,…. of each member in their families. The information shifted between each family 

In conclusion, data are rough information and the collective of events about something (eg: colors, weather, hobby,..) Data can consist of numbers, documents, pictures, audios or videos.  

To make data “data”, they have to be convertible into information that can later be based on to make some decisions. For example, we can decide what to wear on a specific date based on the data on the weather forecast. 

Thus, in order for you to share the above data such as weather forecasts, timetables, etc. from one place to another, you need to transmit that data to the place you need it. 

For example: The train starts from Ninh Thuan province (station A) to Ho Chi Minh city (station B). In order for the train to move, it has to travel through the railway track, to be more specific, we are now at station A, through the railway track, we move to station B. In this case the train is called data, the rail is considered a connection. However, in order to reach the destination, we need a specific address.

In order for the timetable on our computer to be sent to another device, we need a computer network.

A computer network is a collection of networked devices such as computers, printers, cell phones, iPads, and modems that communicate using communication protocols through digital networks.

Items like cell phones, laptops, and iPads are referred to as buttons that are connected to each other by wired or wireless connection called links.

  • Router is a device that acts as a gateway to numerous other devices and allows them to connect to one computer network. Devices connected to this network are then able to communicate with each other without using wires.
  • The switch makes it easier to connect all of the devices in a small network.

If you want to send a picture of Mickey Mouse from one computer to another without following a path, the path can actually change while two computers communicate with each other. A packet is a unit of information that travels from one computer to another on the internet in a manner similar to how we travel in a city.

However, there is a lot of digital data sent by IP packets, as well as some limitations.

For example, if you send a picture of Mickey Mouse, it will be divided into hundreds or even thousands of smaller pieces known as packets. Each packet, which will travel by many different paths and arrive at different times, will only need to have the internet address of where it is going and where it is coming from.

Routers are internet-connected computers that serve as traffic managers, ensuring that packets move smoothly across the network. Individual packets take a different route across the internet when a packet is congested, and they may arrive at their destination at a slightly different time or be damaged.

Each route will monitor multiple paths to send packets and select the best path for each data sample based on the IP address of the packet’s destination.

For example, if you want to listen to music, how do you know that 100% of all data will be transmitted in order for the song to play smoothly?

TCP (transmission control protocol) will now manage the sending and receiving of all your data as packets. It is comparable to a type of guaranteed mailing service. When you request a song on your device, Spotify sends you a song in multiple packets. When the packets arrive, TCP inspects them thoroughly and resends an acknowledgment of receipt for each one. TCP will sign for delivery if all packets are present, and that’s it.

If the TCP packet detects that some packets are missing, it will not sign it, your song will not sound as smooth, and some parts may be missing. Spotify will proceed to resend any missing or incomplete packets. The song will be emitted once TCP acknowledges that it has received multiple packets of the requested song.

The systems that comprise the internet connect and communicate with one another, as well as coordinate with one another, thanks to certain agreed-upon standards for sending data over the internet, where it will be reassembled in order if necessary. This occurs billions of times per day, regardless of whether you and others are surfing the web, sending emails, making video calls, or otherwise communicating with one another.

As a result of the preceding practical examples, you will understand that information transmission from one network device to another via a network connection is required to quickly share information with others.

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